See the following for a full discussion of our earlier work with undergraduate student researchers in the classroom: Portillo, Shannon, Danielle S. Rudes, Lincoln Sloas, Kirsten Hutzell and Paula Salamoun (2013). “Students as Scholars: Integrating Research into the Undergraduate Classroom Experience” Journal of Criminal Justice Education 24(1): 68-96.
Conducting Undergraduate Research
With the guidance of my research mentors Dr. Shannon Portillo and Ph.D. student Nicole Humphrey, I formulated a research question. The hardest part of formulating my question(s) was feeling like there had to be a right or wrong answer available. I would imagine these feelings stems from an educational upbringing that fostered an exploration for a correct answer, not ambiguous possibility. The vagueness of my research questions scared me because I didn’t want to fail and disappoint my mentors, even though I rationally knew that ambiguity was necessary because if there was a lack of ambiguity, what would there be to research? This is more challenging because in the physical sciences there is the possibility of a cut and dry answer, and I grew up with this being the only kind of research I would think of when the term was mentioned. Now, I find that in any academic setting I cannot help but think of some research question I would like to study (making for a distracted Sydney in the classroom).
Being a research assistant before I conducted my own research lessened the concern I would have encountered had I jumped into my own. Assisting gave me the perspective of viewing end work while understanding what needs to go into a research project. I try and imagine my research journey without the support I received from the Center for Undergraduate Research as well as my mentor and I. Just. Can’t. I would have faced such challenges writing a literature review for the first time without the advice of those who had been through the process as well as an award application for research, when I was a first-time researcher.
Looking back, it is likely because I was a first-time semi-independent researcher that I thought I would be able to handle the process alone. I planned to conduct thirty semi-structured interviews myself as well as coding and transcribing the data alone, which is slightly laughable now. Having the Law and Society major capstone class to help me conduct and think critically about my research was essential to this project, but also my confidence as a researcher. I don’t think I would have grown the way I have this semester without my research team, because they brought ideas to the table I had not thought of as well as carrying the interview load. I think if I had conducted interviews alone this semester I would have ended up burned out and discouraged by the workload. My research team kept me afloat and excited to do more research in the Fall. I never thought research would be an interest of mine, because I imagined it as: numbers, coding, being in a lab. Yet, this past year and half I have learned it’s studying what’s below the surface, why we do what we do, and gaining understanding so we can move forward and better the communities of which we belong.
Mentor Teaching/Learning is Positive and Effective:
“Learning by doing” (Takata and Lieting, 1987) is the type of learning we did this semester in this capstone class. Hands on learning approach has several benefits such as preparing us for real world experiences, how to communicate, how to gather data by having to critically think on your own; also this form of learning allows you to process data at your own speed and style, which is beneficial for everyone involved. I agree with scholars that argue that teaching and research don’t not have to be antagonistic. Rather, they should be integrated in undergraduate curriculum, particularly at research universities ( Boyer, 1990; Boyer Commission, 1998: Healey 2005) Being a student that studies at an AAU school it brings me great pride and honor to be a part of this study with Professor Portillo. There really is a kind of culture that you acquire with staff and fellow students as we see in the Bennet, Boyer, Brake and Healey Research, teach the research process enhances students’ understanding of the process and discipline, as well as promotes a university culture, which values and support scholarship, this allows faculty to benefit as well while collaborating, mentoring and aligning their research goals.
Allowing her students to learn actively has allowed for a new experience as a student. I didn’t fully understand at first what her intentions for us were, but now that I do, I love that we were the first capstone class of our department in Law and Society. I would love to see where the research direction goes for future students. Inquiry and research based teaching facilitates student learning and engagement in the classroom find that students at all achievement levels can thrive and benefit from research experience (Apedoe and Reeves, 2006: Baldock and Chanson, 2006; Matand, Wu, and Rollin, 2011; Spronken-Smith, 2010: Spronken-Smith and Walker, 2010). With more research we could get a better understanding of what other forms of teaching/learning would benefit those studying at KU in the Law and Society department, and what better way to get data then using this theory of professors working with undergrad students who attend AAU universities. This collaboration benefits science, KU, professors and students alike, and society because answers for issues in law and society are always needed to bring a level of peace in the community.
Middle-Aged Men Muddled in Middle Management:
An explorative look into frontline supervision and perceptions of power
By Collin D. Cox
This semester I participated in a capstone course designed so that each student had the opportunity to engage directly with frontline supervisors in the region to gather information regarding their positions. This analysis is based on interviews conducted with sergeants in jurisdictions in Northeast Kansas. My analysis is also informed by: (1) transcripts of other student-lead interviews with police sergeants, (2) an undergraduate research project shaped by Sydney Bannister’s Undergraduate Ressearch Award, and (3) from literature by academics such as Shannon Portillo, Kimberly Kras, Faye Taxman, Howard Risher, Janet Chan, Sally Doran, Christina Marel, and many more. This project was exploratory in nature, and is shaped by some limitations. Data collection was limited to the region. The data are also shaped by my own positionality as a young (21), white, gay man, However, the results of the research reinforce what we find in the limited academic research on frontline supervisors. My analysis below focuses on my research experience and some of the themes that emerged from my analysis.
CITI training:During the first two weeks of the course, we were asked to participate in the CITI Training course in which the Human Research Protection Program.
Academic review: Following our certification, we began exploring what literature already exists (and there isn’t much!) regarding frontline supervision. In “Managing from the Middle”, Frontline supervision is defined as: “serv[ing] in a critical role, maintaining relationships between upper management and frontline workers” (Kras, Portillo, and Taxman 2017, p. 1). This definition shaped the outlook of the Undergraduate Research Application formed by Sydney Bannister, which lead to the focus of our capstone course.
Purpose:The purpose of our research is to explore and understand how power is wielded by middle managers in local law enforcement precincts and how they manage their use of power in relation to their gender identity.
The Interviews:I conducted two interviews with local police sergeants. Before each of the interviews, the sergeants signed informed consent forms. The interviews were both semi-structured to allow for a better flow of ideas and conversation in a confidential setting. I took notes of the actions/reactions throughout our dialogue and compiled all of the information (verbal & nonverbal) via transcription. Interviews focused on broad themes related to sergeants roles as middle managers, and specifically asked for narratives of how sergeants engage with their work with subordinates and superiors.
One difficulty I faced during the process, was access to research participants. It was difficult to recruit people into the study. One of the more interesting findings from my analysis is how my identity may have shaped the data I acquired.
In one interview, I felt uncomfortable on the basis of my sexuality whereas I felt comfortable in the other. Which, in regard to the perception of power, one sergeant seemingly used my identity as platform to exert his authority over me. Some of the key indicators that I noted throughout that interview included: Frequent interruption, correction of my questions, rolling of eyes, and patronizing tones and vocal inflections. This slight difference of social identity appeared to separate me from the social status of the heteronormative sergeant. In the reading “How Race, Sex, and Age Frame the Use of Authority by Local Government Officials”, “Social status can be seen as a continuum, with middle-aged white men at one end and young women of color at the other” (Portillo, 2010 p. 608) While understanding that my identity leans heavily towards one end, even the slightest difference in social identity made me feel extremely uncomfortable as I felt my status challenged greatly (You can imagine what that could mean from identities on the other end of the spectrum). However, that same individual did not have a post-high school education and felt as though his authority was challenged as my questions were ‘academic’-based and not ‘practice’-based.
Another challenge, among the difficulty in locating sergeants in general, were locating women in those roles. When, at the beginning of the semester, we had a conversation of what it was like for women to be in these roles, many have discussed feeling as though they needed to express their title of authority to be taken seriously. As well, many felt as though they had to become accustomed to the ‘fraternization’ environment of policing. That being said, during a panel towards the beginning of the semester, one of the sergeants stated that her subordinates often found her to be “bitchy” when enforcing rules. Prokos and Padavic outline these scenarios justly, that such masculinity, “Is rendered most visible in situations where it is challenged, as when men face unemployment, enter traditionally female occupations[...], or, as in this case, when women enter jobs that traditionally had been used to confirm masculinity” (Prokos and Padavic 2002, p. 441).
The solution? I would urge for more data and research into this, especially into the day-to-day environment of middle-management as well as in interviewing sergeants from other jurisdictions and regions. This way, we can improve academia and provide sound literature to better shape policy, in training of future sergeants, and in educating the public.
This research was extraordinarily exciting in terms of being on the forefront of research. Prior to the capstone course, I knew that I was interested in continuing in some sort of higher education but having the opportunity to engage in this particular research study has reinvigorated that passion. I knew that we had a long ways to go in terms of diversifying the roles of leading figures in our society but I had no idea to what extent such intentionality, time, and effort must be taken to achieve that. This course helped me to realize that while there may be no simple solution.
Kras, K., Portillo, S. and Taxman, F. (2017). Managing from the Middle: Frontline
Supervisors and Perceptions of Their Organizational Power. Law & Policy, 39 (3), pp.215-236.
Portillo, S. (2010). How Race, Sex, and Age Frame the Use of Authority by Local Government Officials.
Law & Social Inquiry, 35 (3), 603-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4469.2010.01197.x
Prokos, A. and Padavic, I. (2002). 'There Oughtta Be a Law Against Bitches': Masculinity Lessons in
Police Academy Training. Gender, Work and Organization, 9(4), pp.439-459.
Ground Floor Research: My Experience
Since this was something that I’ve never done before, it was kind of scary, but the more involved that I became with the first interview, the more interesting the actual interviews became and therefore it was more that I liked the actual research of people. My confidence increased with the second interview as I had more of an idea of what I wanted to as although it was that much better than the first interview.
In the end, I think that had I done more, it probably could have been even easier and maybe even become addictive if there could even be such a thing in the academic world. Being the ground breaker for research of a subject that doesn’t have much information and knowing that I had a hand in how future research can and will be done is very satisfying to know and it would be interesting to know how far research can go years down the road.